【亞太博物館連線專欄】後國家象徵的文化資產保存挑戰─反思陽明山中山樓古蹟活化再生的困境

The Challenges of Cultural Asset Preservation Post-National Emblem: Reflecting on the Difficulties of Revitalizing Yangmingshan Chungshan Hall

後國家象徵的文化資產保存挑戰——反思陽明山中山樓古蹟活化再生的困境

The Challenges of Cultural Asset Preservation Post-National Emblem: Reflecting on the Difficulties of Revitalizing Yangmingshan Chungshan Hall

 

作者:殷寶寧(國立臺灣藝術大學藝術管理與文化政策研究所教授)
編輯:田偲妤

 

今年正值解嚴30週年,臺灣正面臨國家與族群認同建構的關鍵時刻,尚待思考如何保存公認的文化資產,建立某種歷史共識,朝向未來描摹出「共同體」想像的可能。

近年來228事件與白色恐怖等負面遺產(negative heritage)的歷史探究與博物館建置,獲得持續的討論,期許藉由反思這段歷史,撫平族群間的裂痕,重塑人民對國家的認同。然而我們對於威權時代文化資產的保存與活化似乎尚未展開討論,經常因為創意產業和博物館經營的熱潮,掩蓋了這些歷史場景的文化價值,而在營收重擔與敏感場域的雙重壓力下,這些威權時代文化資產應該以什麼樣的面貌重新面對群眾?

本文以陽明山中山樓為例,藉由文化經濟學者David Throsby的六個文化價值檢視向度,檢視中山樓的文化價值,反思威權時代文化資產活化再生的困境與可能,勇於面對轉型正義之外的意識形態挑戰與文化價值再思。

關鍵字:文化資產、負面遺產、國家認同、活化再生、文化價值

This year marks the 30th Anniversary of End of Martial Law in Taiwan. As we come to a critical moment in the construction of our national and ethnic identity, we must contemplate on how to preserve our critical cultural assets, create a form of historical consensus, and try to explore the possibility of an imagined community for the future.
In recent years, the historical exploration and museum construction centering on negative heritages, such as The February 28 Incident and White Terror period, continued to generate discussions, with hope that, after reflecting on our history, we can try to mend the differences between ethnic groups, and reshape our national identity. However, it seems that as of now, we have not yet begun to discuss the preservation and revitalization of cultural assets from the time of authoritarian regime, with the cultural value of these historical sites often overwhelmed by the rise of creativity industry and museum management. With the pressure of operation cost and the sensitivity of the subject, how should these cultural assets from the authoritarian regime present itself to the public?
This article will use Yangmingshan Chungshan Hall as an example, examining the cultural value of Chungshan Hall based on cultural economist David Throsby’s six cultural values, reflect on the difficulty and possibility of revitalizing cultural assets from the time of authoritarian regime based on the conclusion, then finally faces the challenges of ideology and cultural value re-evaluation beyond transitional justice

Keywords: cultural assets, negative heritage, national identity, revitalization, cultural value


文化資產的價值論斷挑戰

思考文化課題,即是探索價值問題。這個命題對於思考臺灣的文化資產保存實踐,更是個艱鉅卻不可或缺的任務。然而,不同於商品經濟可以透過市場價格有明確的交換邏輯,文化場域的價值論斷有著難以挪用交換價值與價格邏輯來評估的結構性困境;更大的挑戰來自於象徵、意義和意識形態層次的價值爭奪。舉例來說,今年正值解嚴30週年,經歷過殖民統治與威權時代的臺灣,如同其他大多數的亞洲國家,目前可能也正處於國家與族群認同建構的關鍵時刻。那麼,一方面,要如何看待、保存我們共同認可的文化資產,建立起某種歷史的共識;另一方面,這樣的歷史共識逐步建立的過程中,才可能朝向未來描摹出一點點「共同體」想像的可能。換言之,雖然近年來,許多研究者致力於建構文化經濟的溝通橋樑,也試圖借用一些經濟學的概念與方法來進行描繪與評估,但文化價值及其評價方法仍是必須從文化論述裡產生。

 

負面遺產的重新檢視與反思

「負面遺產」(negative heritage)概念近年來在臺灣的博物館與文化資產保存領域中受到持續關注與討論。主要投射和探討的場域聚焦在如228事件與白色恐怖等歷史解密、探索真相,以期尋求救贖和原諒的可能。包含國家人權博物館、228國家紀念館等中央級的博物館,及景美和綠島等現址園區的設置,即是試圖從受難者及其家族的記憶層面,來重新檢視和反思這段歷史。許多研究調查報告、展覽和導覽教育活動,逐步地讓這些歷史被看見,期待傷痛有可能被撫平。然而,針對與統治者相關的地點、館所與設施,我們的討論似乎還未展開。甚且,可能因為創意產業和博物館經營發展的熱潮,掩蓋了這些歷史場景的過往身世。

 

陽明山中山樓的活化再生困境

圖1 陽明山中山樓(來源:陽明山中山樓臉書專頁https://goo.gl/SSYMvL)

 

威權時代的臺灣,陽明山中山樓(圖1)始終籠罩著神祕的色彩。2016年底,以中山樓興建五十年紀念典禮之名,為這座自從國民大會廢止後,彷彿人去樓空的閒置空間活化再生,再次發出動員令。檢視相關文件,這回中山樓經營團隊的行銷策略,乃是建立在「打開神祕的盒子」,並且以此作為包裝訴求,吸引人關注這座文化資產。例如,強調揭祕當年蔣介石與宋美齡的生活起居與工作場域(圖2),或這棟雄偉建築有何種蔣介石的帝王風水傳說,以及當年如何在國家困窮、國民所得有限與技術機具不足的種種困境下,眾志成城地起造落成。然而,這樣簡化的行銷策略對於思考這座市定古蹟的歷史定位、文化資產價值,甚至是從象徵層次來探討其於當代臺灣社會的空間與建築意涵,顯然都是太過跳躍而無章法的紀念館規劃概念。

圖2 中山樓50年慶祝活動,二樓元首休息室限定開放參觀(來源:陽明山中山樓官網https://goo.gl/j81z2a)

 

面臨全球新自由主義的治理思維,一向耗費不貲的文化資產和博物館,面臨著龐大的自謀營收壓力。陽明山中山樓從2005年國民大會不再使用後,各界對維護館舍建築與人力耗費質疑,要求從收益導向積極活化,故一度曾轉型作為場地租借,舉辦婚宴、尾牙等大型餐會的溫泉會館模式。此舉也引發不同爭議,認為具有高度文化價值的歷史場所,淪為過於商業娛樂的利用。後自2012年從國父紀念館轄下,改隸由臺灣圖書館管理,展開其文物紀念館的活化策略。目前正式編制五人,年度預算編列三千萬。但這些費用僅容許清潔、保全、機電保養等基本維持營運,對於古蹟本體的建築修復、結構補強等,都必須仰賴專案申請補助。不難理解館方需要借助文化行銷和創意產業來增加收入,以支撐於館舍經營。然而,一座博物館或文物紀念館的誕生,不應只是停留在對於閒置空間的活化再生,如何在這個過程中探問其歷史意涵,經由社群集體記憶和場所精神的持續對話,挖掘出我們所珍視的、共同的、認可的文化、歷史,甚至是藝術與美學價值,這樣的公共博物館才足以擔負起社會教育的功能與角色,得以主張其運用公務預算的正當性。換言之,一座博物館的生成,特別是由文化資產轉生的博物館,必然須面對其文化價值的討論。

 

文化價值檢視向度下的中山樓

誠然文化價值本身具反測量的本質,但為了讓文化價值與概念可以被討論,提出不同層面的價值特徵,有助於將文化價值從個人連接到集體層次,以探討文化如何作為一種「公共財」,特別是諸如文化資產等課題,可以建立起溝通與討論的對話場域。文化經濟學者David Throsby提出包含美學價值、精神價值、社會價值、歷史價值、象徵價值與真實性價值等六個面向,以期促進對文化價值的討論。援引Throsby這六個向度,可以如何檢視陽明山中山樓整體的文化價值呢?
從美學價值來說,該建築的確具有時代性,見證了中國建築現代化的路徑。然而,其所採用的中國古典宮殿式建築的樣式,在強人威權時期,意涵著某種帝王統治想像,並以其來表徵「中華文化復興」,對抗當時中國的文化大革命,應該要如何看待這樣的建築象徵與意識形態呢?從精神價值來說,中山樓所在的陽明山溫泉源頭,長期被炒作為帝王風水寶地,陽明山在兩蔣統治時期更是形同其家族後花園,相對於中山樓被國防部長期管制,陽明山國家公園的場所精神或許更能喚起市民的精神認同。

圖3 中山樓內部國民大會開會情景(來源:陽明山中山樓官網https://goo.gl/zFccmM)

 

再從社會層面來看,中山樓當時自傲於是國民大會開會的場所(圖3),具有人民主權崇高象徵的基地,但其採用的宮殿建築樣式,一般社會大眾根本難以接近,內部還保有專屬蔣介石、宋美齡使用的空間,至今尚未開放大眾參觀,於此凸顯人民直接民主的價值,著實諷刺。至於歷史層面的價值來說,或許更具有紀念性的意涵來自當時的政治反對運動陣營。不論是突破重重封鎖線,以陽明山中山樓作為集體抗議特定議題的場域;或是積極推舉競選國大代表,進入體制進行自廢武功的改革,這些都是臺灣當前民主發展軌跡在歷史向度的重要時刻。若真要凸顯陽明山中山樓在歷史層次的內涵,標示出這些歷年的群眾抗議事件、故事和地點,或許更具有歷史真實性的價值。綜合前述不同面向的價值討論,從象徵意義上來說,這個出現在新臺幣百元鈔票上的宏偉建築(圖4),在抽象的象徵層次上,究竟告訴我們什麼呢?難道僅是如同中正紀念堂的宏偉,藉由登錄文化景觀的文化資產體制手段,即可以簡便地宣稱自身具有不需檢證的文化資產價值?最後,以古蹟的真實性價值來說,該建築以當時的建築工程水準來說,的確是完成了許多不可能的任務及挑戰。但或許沒人提過的是,以國民所得相比換算,這座當時花費兩億臺幣的建築物,相當於今日造價約193億元的豪奢級公共建設。其中尚收藏了許多木、石、玉、陶器等文物,以及珍貴的書畫,舉凡季康、黃君璧、曾后希、歐豪年、王壯為、林玉山、江兆申等知名畫家的作品。經過專家逐一考察評估,其中有二十件被列為珍貴館藏(圖5)。另根據相關研究者推論,中山樓裡許多文物收藏乃是來自於宋美齡屬意入藏的精緻藝術品。從文物角度言,這些典藏的確具有其藝術價值,但置放在中山樓這個歷史空間中,如何看待與理解這些文物的價值,並好好地加以保存呢?

圖4 新臺幣百元鈔票上的中山樓(來源:陽明山中山樓臉書專頁https://goo.gl/e3aLZe)
圖5 一樓會客廳擺放季康的巨型三聯八扇屏風仕女圖(來源:陽明山中山堂官網https://goo.gl/x6UzFY)

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意識形態枷鎖與文化價值再思

現今的管理單位積極地珍視中山樓建築本體及其內典藏文物的價值,充分展現出博物館工作者的熱忱與專注。然而,目前卻僅能爭取到科技部的數位典藏經費,針對這些文物進行數位化與仿製品製作的計畫。易言之,這些書畫文物雖然都是當代大師的作品,具有一定的作品價值與藝術評價,然而,卻可能是因為連結上威權時代統治者的意識形態與美學品味,而使得如何詮釋這些作品,面對著嚴苛的歷史困窘挑戰。
陽明山中山樓以其建築工程的卓越精彩,列名為臺灣現代主義建築代表作之列(Docomomo, Taiwan),也的確見證了臺灣戰後憲政與政治體制發展的各頁歷史。然而,如同其他亞洲國家,在二次戰後面臨去殖民與民主化進程,不可逃避的政治解放運動風潮一般,如何在我們的文化資產保存與博物館經營中,面對轉型正義之外的意識形態挑戰與文化價值再思,我們顯然還有許多路要走。


The Challenges of Cultural Asset Preservation Post-National Emblem: Reflecting on the Difficulties of Revitalizing Yangmingshan Chungshan Hall

 

Author: Pao-Ning Yin (Professor, Graduate School of Arts Management and Cultural Policy, NTUA)
Editor: Sally Sz-Yu Tian

 

Judgement on the Values of Cultural Assets

When you think of cultural issues, you are actually evaluating cultural value. This is a tough but essential mission referring to the practice of cultural assets preservation in Taiwan. However, unlike price of a commodity is based on the market status, the value of cultural assets has a structural dilemma with difficult evaluation from exchange value and reference price. And the bigger challenge comes from the value measurement of symbolism, meaning and ideology. For example, this is the 30th year Taiwan has ended the practice of martial law. Our land, which had experienced colonial rule and authoritarian regime, is also in the critical moment of constructing national and ethnic identity just like many other Asian countries. On the one hand, how to take perspective and preserve our cultural assets to have some degree of historical consensus; on the other hand, in the process of building consensus, and then we can explore the possibility of an imagined community for the future. In other words, although many researchers have dedicated to connect and evaluate the value of cultural assets with economic concept and methods in recently years, the value and the assessment still have to be derived from cultural discourse studies.

 

Review and Introspect of Negative Heritage

Recently, the concept of “negative heritage” is popular in museums and field of cultural assets preservation in Taiwan, focused mainly on the truth of the 228 incident and the white terror in order to try and reach salvation and forgiveness. The intention of museums including National Human Right Museum, 228 Memorial Museum and the on-site museum in Jingmei and Green Island is to review and to introspect this history from the memory of victims and their family. These memories of history are gradually recalled by investigation report, exhibitions and education, expected to heal the pain. Nevertheless, it seems that as of now, the discussions of relative elements remain veiled and the historical sites are even overwhelmed by the rise of creativity industry and museum management.

 

The Difficulties of Revitalizing Yangmingshan Chungshan Hall

Yangmingshan Chungshan Hall was shrouded in mystery under the authoritarian regime in Taiwan and in the name of 50th commemorative ceremony in 2016; it seems that Chungshan Hall is revived again at this activity after revoked by National Assembly long time ago. If we read relative documents from the operating team, we can notice that the marketing strategies are based on “Opening the Mysterious Box" to attract people to lay eyes on this cultural asset. For example, they emphasize on revealing daily lives and work areas of Chiang Kai-Shek and Soong May-Ling or the Feng-shui tales surrounding the spectacular building and the great dictator, the stories telling the difficulties while building Chungshan Hall with limited resources and insufficient technical equipment but succeed eventually.  But these simplified strategies narrow down the value and position of the essential historic relics and even use symbolism to discuss the meaning of contemporary space and architecture in Taiwan society with obviously disorganized planning.

Facing the trend of neoliberalism worldwide, cultural assets and museums face much higher pressure on making their own operation costs than before. Since Yangmingshan Chungshan Hall was not used for National Assemblies after 2005, the public have doubted the costs for maintenance and manpower hence requested the hall to run profit-oriented business. For a period of time, Chungshan Hall was once transformed into a renting venue for wedding or year-end banquet etc., causing different dispute from people thinking it’s shameful that a historical site with high culture value becomes an entertaining place. After supervision unit changed from Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall to National Taiwan Library in 2012, the operating team changed strategies to revitalize Chungshan Hall as it was. At present, the operation is relies on a team of five with a 30 million NTD annual budget; however, this cost is only sufficient for basic operation such as cleaning, security and maintenance etc. Other budgets, such as restoration for historic buildings can only count on program grant from authority. Under this situation, it is easy to understand the reason why the operating team needs to increase profit by cultural marketing and creative industries to support the business. But an existence of a museum or cultural relic memorial hall should not only be a space for visiting but a site demonstrating historical value that can bring us together with a precious, mutual and acceptable culture, history and aesthetics. And that is a role that good public museums should play in terms of social education and claim the legitimacy in the use of official budget. That is to say that being a museum, especially those that were historical assets, must be criticized with its cultural value.

 

Chungshan Hall under the perspective of cultural value

It is true that cultural value itself is hard to be examined, and in order to raise profile to public for discussion and bringing up ideas, helping to connect individual with community to view culture as “public goods". Particularly, issues such as cultural assets or similar topics can make up a field for communication and discussion. Cultural economist David Throsby delineates six different types including aesthetic value, spiritual value, social value, historical value, symbolic value and authenticity value to arouse attention and discussion for cultural value. With these six dimensions, how do we examine the entire cultural value of Yangmingshan Chungshan Hall?

From the aspect of aesthetic values, this building has its historical value and has witnessed the process of Chinese architecture modernization. However, under the period of authoritarian regime, classic Chinese palatial architecture implies a certain kind of imperialism to represent the “Chinese cultural revitalization", fighting against Cultural Revolution at that time. How do we treat these symbols and ideologies? In terms of spiritual value, the water source of Yangmingshan hot spring, where Chungshan Hall is located, have always been speculated as a Feng-Shui treasure-land for an emperor; also, Yangmingshan was just like a backyard garden of Chiang’s family in their reign. Compared to Chungshan Hall, which had been long controlled by Ministry of National Defense, the spirit of Yangmingshan National Park can more easily arouse spiritual identity of Taiwanese citizens.

From the perspective of society, Chungshan Hall was proud of itself as a place used by National Assembly, symbolizing the greatness of people sovereignty. However, public can easily feel alienated from its classic palatial style, not to mention that it still preserves an area that used to be private to Chiang Kai-Shek and Song Mei-Ling which are still not opened to people to this day. It is such an ironic icon towards direct democracy in Taiwan. Taking perspective from historical level, the monumental value comes from opposition movement. As a place for protests gatherings for a certain issue after breaking through the security cordon, or the building of those who attended meetings after actively campaigning for delegate to the National Assembly in order to reform the system, these are the crucial moments for the development of present democracy. If one really wants to concentrate on the history of Chungshan Hall, these past events and stories are actually the ones with true value in our history. From the above discussions, what does this great building printed on the NTD$100 bill represent to us in an abstract-symbolic dimension? Or just because it has a similar grandeur of Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Chungshan Hall can simply be claimed its value and needs no verification by means of cultural assets registration system? Last but not least, in the point of authenticity value, this building definitely is an impossible achievement regarding the poor quality of construction engineering in that time, but perhaps no one has ever mentioned the cost of Chungshan Hall is NTD$ 200 million equivalent to the luxury public construction costing about NTD$ 19.3 billion today based on the level of national income. Among them are many cultural goods of wood, stone, jade and pottery; moreover, plenty of rare painting and calligraphy from famous artist including Ji Kang, Huang Jun-Bi, Zeng Hou-xi, Ou Hao-Nian, Wang Zhuang-Wei, Lin Yu-Shan and Jiang Zhao-Shen etc. are all collected in Chungshan Hall. There are 20 pieces of them are classified as valuable museum collection after evaluated by experts. Besides, according to researchers’ inference, many cultural goods in Chungshan Hall were introduced by Song Mei-Ling. However, even those collections do have their artistic value, but when they are placed in this historical site, there is a grey area of how we view and understand their values and preserve them well?

The chain of ideology and reconsideration of cultural value

The operating team now focuses on the architecture itself and the cultural goods inside, fully representing their passion and emphasis. But the members can only get the appropriation of digital archive from Ministry of Science and Technology to precede the plan of digitization and imitation. In the short term, even though these cultural goods are masterpieces of the time with certain value and reputation, they are facing the challenge and difficulties in presentation while they are connect with ideology and aesthetics of governor in authoritarian regime.

Yangmingshan Chungshan Hall is listed in Docomomo International as a representative work of Taiwan modernism architecture for its outstanding construction operation. It also witnesses the postwar development of constitutional and political system in Taiwan. Yet, just like other Asian countries, we also encounter the process of decolonization and democratization after World War II along with the inevitable trend of political liberation movement. Obviously, we still have a long way to go in challenging present ideology and reconsidering the cultural value beyond the transitional justice in cultural asset preservation and museum management.

 


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