【亞太博物館連線專欄】博物館中的「新」對話—臺博館的多語言導覽服務

Creating Intercultural Dialogue Between Museum and Immigrant Communities: Multilingual Tour Service in National Taiwan Museum

博物館中的「新」對話—臺博館的多語言導覽服務

Creating Intercultural Dialogue Between Museum and Immigrant Communities: Multilingual Tour Service in National Taiwan Museum

 

作者:袁緖文(國立臺灣博物館 教育推廣組研究助理)

臺灣歷史上最新一波的移民潮,大約從1990年代開始。隨著全球化所帶來的經濟型態的改變,陸續有許多從中國大陸與東南亞地區朋友們透過婚姻與工作的關係而來到臺灣。截至2017年月底中華民國移民署、教育部以及勞動部最新的人口統計資料結果,臺灣的東南亞新住民、新二代與移工數總計已突破一百萬人。新住民與移工集合了多元文化和多國語言等各種優勢於一身,為我們的社會也增添了繽紛的文化色彩。移民工為臺灣注入了新鮮的血液、幫助促進了社會與人口的發展、照顧我們的長者並從事最辛苦繁重的勞動。臺灣對於多元文化社會的包容也逐漸增加,族群之間正努力透過各式的多元文化教育活動認識彼此,透過相互的認識,能產生更多的理解與包容。國立臺灣博物館於民國2014年底開始的「新住民服務大使」專案,邀請新住民擔任母語導覽員,讓多元文化的觀眾群在走進博物館時能以自己的母語來認識臺灣與本館的建築與歷史沿革,此認識的過程中能更加順利、平和同時並達到認識更真實的多元文化。

關鍵字:多語導覽服務、新住民、移工、多元文化、文化平權

This review reflects on the initiative to provide multilingual guide service in National Taiwan Museum, as well ongoing education activities related to cultural diversity.

Since 2015, the museum has been recruiting immigrants and foreign spouses from Southeast Asian communities in Taiwan, where after a 10-hour training program, they can help provide introductions on both museum history and permanent exhibitions in their native language to audiences from Southeast Asian countries.

According to the statics of National Immigration Agency, Ministry of Education, and Ministry of Labor, by the end of June 2017, the number of foreign spouses/new immigrants and workers from Southeast Asian countries in Taiwan will exceed one million. They are here to provide support to the social development and population in Taiwan, take care of our elderly, undertake works that are often labeled 3D: Dirty, Dangerous and Difficult, and have brought Taiwan the various advantages of multi-cultural and multi-lingual influences among different ethnic groups. As such, National Taiwan Museum (NTM), the oldest museum in Taiwan, is trying to serve as a “bridge” to promote mutual understanding among different ethnic groups. Starting in June, 2015, National Taiwan Museum initiated the “New Immigrant Ambassadors” project and recruited 14 new immigrants. By the end of July 2017, there will be about 20 immigrants serving as museum guides and partners of NTM.

Keywords: multicultural tour service, new immigrants, migrant workers, museum

*scroll down for more English content.


認識在臺灣的新朋友

國立臺灣博物館位於二二八和平紀念公園內,周末的公園內常是東南亞移工的熱門聚會地點。然而新住民對於博物館存在著儼然難進的印象,認為國家級的博物館應是服務臺灣民眾與歐美日各國的觀光客為主,對於自身屬於外籍配偶與移工的身分,實在很不好意思走入博物館。然而東南亞本身蘊含悠久的文化藝術、語言與歷史,每位新住民與移工都是母國文化傳承之載體。而博物館身為社會教育與多元社會的「橋梁」,應邀請多元文化之載體進入博物館,並有目地的發揮獨特的語言及文化,更達到東南亞與臺灣彼此文化的雙向認識與交流。

筆者於2014年底進入博物館並接手「新住民服務大使」專案,到國立臺灣博物館受文化部委託於2017年舉辦了臺灣歷史上的第一場「全國文化會議-新住民文化論壇」。顯見透過持續並定期與臺灣社會之多元文化族群保持接觸以及辦理各項座談會、培訓、文化展演等活動,足以快速增進雙方認識並建立互動與互信的重要基礎,進而累積於該次的論壇中集結了來自東南亞各國的移民參與,重新檢視博物館面對移民社會應有之角色與態度。當東南亞新住民進入臺灣時,都會被要求「立即」進入主流社會,如果遇到語言不通的情況,更會遇到不敢出門或者是強烈地感受到被看不起的感覺。國際移民為全球化下的普遍現象,在臺灣的我們更應該打開雙臂歡迎「選擇」移入臺灣的東南亞朋友們。Kivisto and Faist(2010)的「跨越邊界:當代遷徙的因果」(葉宗顯 譯,2013)中提到移民的過程在整體適應與感受上粗略可分為以下三階段:

首先,個人在移民過程中,原本熟悉人事物及井然有序的生活與文化經驗,會因為移入新的環境後呈現失序的狀態。以在臺新住民為例,就會有宗教、語言、文化等等之不適應,且會因為文化的差異造成的彼此誤解,或者所引發的焦慮挫折與失落感。在具有包容性的社會與文化中慢慢地適應與重新學習,找出和臺灣社會更緊密的結合與關係。臺博館的新住民服務大使中,來臺10年以上的越南籍新住民表示,剛來臺灣通常會努力參與各種課程或者是社團活動,凡是能夠越快認識臺灣的語言文化與生活的課程或計畫一定積極參與,並希望未來也能協助同鄉姊妹更快的適應臺灣生活,並親自教育孩子。然而主流社會期待新移民能盡快融入其語言文化與社會規範,在過程中可能導致母國文化及語言之保存快速流失。部份來臺許久的東南亞新住民表示,早年因婚姻關係來臺,被強制要求禁用母語的情況下,雖已快速地融入臺灣,卻開始忘記母語的使用,同時導致其母國豐富的文化底蘊逐漸被埋沒。近年來,經由自由戀愛而進入跨國婚姻的東南亞籍新住民逐漸增多,博物館對於參與公共事務與博物館服務時,態度則更趨向「本身代表著母國文化」以及「期待在臺灣的公共場域中進行文化交流」並更促進彼此的認識。當在發展新住民的文化展演活動時,同時應先瞭解新住民的文化及語言背景、學經歷及博物館經驗,並善用每位東南亞移民的專長,規劃博物館相關展演活動,使活動發揮效益,促進新住民的文化參與權。

 

博物館與新住民從「心」溝通

新住民走入博物館則是近年來強調「文化平權」一重要課題。新住民初次接觸到臺灣的博物館時常因為沒有母語導覽文字或說明人員,以致於就算有中文的導覽解說,也會來不及理解,導致僅剩走馬看花的行程。臺博館於2014起開始招募新住民服務大使,提供母語導覽服務,讓有心參與博物館公共服務的新住民經過培力、增能與賦權,成為博物館的導覽主角,讓來聽取導覽的新住民更融入及認識臺博館的建築與歷史。更於2015年7月的開齋節提供印尼與越南新住民服務大使,現場以母語邀請大家走入博物館免費參觀與聚會。

圖1 印尼籍新住民服務大使提供印尼語導覽服務(來源:袁緒文拍攝)
圖2 新住民服務大使洪榮細於2015年伊斯蘭開齋節,於國立臺灣博物館以印尼語向母國人士介紹臺博館的建築與歷史(來源:袁緒文拍攝)

 

臺博館於2014年開始招募新住民參與導覽培訓課程,目前總計通過受訓並正式上線進行導覽的新住民總計10位,計有印尼、越南、泰國、菲律賓與緬甸等5國語言。筆者從旁觀察發現新住民在博物館內的受訓到正式上場導覽的過程中會有三個面向,分別是:一、「協助融入」:增進自己對臺灣的文化及語言的認識,並協助同鄉姊妹更快認識臺灣。二、「擔任橋樑」:找出臺灣與母國文化的連結,並擔任雙方社群在博物館內相互理解與溝通的橋樑。 三、「創造價值」:透過導覽培訓及協助博物館辦理事務,發覺自身潛力。

這三個面向可能是循序漸進的,也可能是互相影響。過程中可見新住民透過一連串具有賦權意義的培訓課程,透過各自的主體性及情感之間的相互支持,及不斷地討論、研讀資料和導覽觀摩與練習,展現自身的真實力量並形塑出強烈的跨文化和獨特語言的導覽風格。

 

博物館的新任務-跨界合作、建立族群間的信任

跨界合作是博物館將多元文化帶入導覽服務中的關鍵。從招募、培訓到正式上線後,同時將聯繫的觸角伸向周邊的非營利以及學生會組織,邀請他們共同合作與辦理各項多元文化體驗活動以及「探訪臺博後花園」系列活動,並安排「新住民服務大使」參與活動協助並於現場進行母語導覽。參與各項活動的臺灣觀眾,在剛開始的時候會有點擔心語言溝通的問題,但因為相關的文化識讀活動以及東南亞美食體驗,讓臺灣民眾也放開心胸的用中文、英文、閩南語(擔任家庭看護的移工大部分也能說很標準的閩南語)溝通,而有東南亞經驗的臺灣民眾更是開心地使用曾經學過的東南亞語言,與主辦活動的東南亞朋友們進行「語言交換」小活動。

圖3 與國立臺灣科技大學越南學生會合作越南文化體驗日活動(來源:袁緒文拍攝)
圖4 2016年於本館後方平台區辦理「印尼國慶文化藝術節」並吸引大批移工與臺灣民眾參與。(來源:袁緒文拍攝)
圖5 2016年於本館後方平台區辦理「印尼國慶文化藝術節」的開幕典禮於本館大廳進行,印尼移工與新住民齊聲高唱印尼國歌,表達對國家的熱愛以及對家鄉的思念。(來源:袁緒文拍攝)

 

經過這段時間的努力推廣,臺博館於2017年研究助理方慧詩接續與大專院校之合作,新增外籍生導覽服務(圖6),招募以英、日、韓、西、粵語等為母語之在臺外籍生,經過培訓與考核驗收之後,於本館進行母語之導覽服務。周末的臺博館逐漸形成跨語言文化交流的重要場所(圖7)。

圖6 外籍生服務導覽海報。(由臺博館美術設計-張慧娟設計)
圖7 國際學生導覽團隊。(來源:國立臺灣博物館方研究助理慧詩)

 

結語

臺灣已是多元文化共存的社會,以往新住民參與公共服務多以內政部移民署、社福單位以及關懷新住民與移工的非營利組織為主,邀請移民工於博物館內進行公共服務是一個新的開始,也是值得博物館永續經營的重要課題。當館內決議辦理這項工作開始,筆者透過各種方式努力拜訪與認識博物館周邊區域的移民工個人、組織與相關團體,並透過館內教推組同仁精心規劃的各種課程與活動邀請新住民姊妹與孩子們一起來參與。在這樣的過程中逐漸培養出新住民與移工進入博物館的習慣,以及對於本館的「信任度」。如今新移民族群已是重要的社會資本,透過博物館的培訓課程,新住民在博物館的服務不但可發覺自身潛力,更作為新住民參與文化藝術等公共服務的參考示範,並進一步將多元文化帶入臺灣社會中,讓臺灣社會看見真實的東南亞世界。

 


Creating Intercultural Dialogue Between Museum and Immigrant Communities – Multilingual Tour Service in National Taiwan Museum

 

Author: Emily Hsu-Wen Yuan (Curator & Research assistant, Education Department, National Taiwan Museum)
Editor: Sally Sz-Yu Tian
Acquiring new friends in Taiwan

National Taiwan Museum is located inside 228 Peace Memorial Park, which is a popular place for South-eastern Asian migrant workers to hang out on weekends. However, for new immigrants, they find it embarrassing to walk into the museum due to their own identity and with the impression that the so-called national museum should be at the service of local Taiwan citizens and tourist from Japan, Europe and America. In fact, the countries in Southeast Asia have long developed their own culture, art, language and history. Every immigrant in Taiwan is an individual reflecting their home country heritage. As an educator and the “bridge” between different ethnics, the museum should recognize its importance to embrace cultural diversity. By encouraging people from all different cultural backgrounds to speak out, the museum can serve as the perfect field to achieve positive interactions between Taiwanese culture and other cultures around South-east Asia.

I have worked in the National Taiwan Museum starting from the end of 2014, responsible for the project of “New Immigrant Ambassadors”. Till 2017, the museum was appointed by Ministry of Culture to hold the very first “National Cultural Congress- Forum on the Cultures of New Immigrants in Taiwan”. Obviously, by holding activities like seminars, training and cultural display etc. to keep a continuous and regular communication with minorities in the Taiwan society will be an essential basis to rapidly enhance positive interaction and then build up trust between different ethnic groups, which can also help us think about the role a museum should play in an immigrant society when the level of participation is higher. When joining the society in Taiwan, South-eastern Asia immigrants are usually asked to fit in the mainstream society “immediately” under the situation of language barrier, which may cause them to be afraid of going out and also feel that people around them look down on them. Migrant workers are a common global phenomenon nowadays and people in Taiwan should be more open-minded to embrace those who “choose” to immigrate into Taiwan. Kivisto and Faist have mentioned that moving from a familiar environment into a whole new society tends to lead to great disorder on cultural experience on a daily life basis in their work “Beyond a Border: The Causes and Consequences of Contemporary Immigration, 2010”.

Take migrant workers in Taiwan as an example, the religion, language and culture are so different from migrant workers, which may cause anxiety and frustration due to misunderstanding. Bonding more intimately with Taiwan society by adapting and learning can be the solution to this issue. Vietnamese immigrant docent of this project who has come to Taiwan for more than ten years says that in the beginning, she will actively participate every kind of courses and events, which helped her merged more easily with Taiwan culture and society. Moreover, she expects to assist woman from Vietnam to adapt the culture and then can educate their children personally. But the process of fitting into the society hastily can lead to culture and language loss for immigrants. Some South-eastern Asian immigrants mentioned that they were prohibited to use their own language when they came to Taiwan due to marriage in the early years, which lead to them hiding their own culture for so long that they start to forget how to use their own mother tongue. Recently, there are more and more transnational marriage on the basis of romantic love between Taiwan and South-east Asia; therefore, the role of the museum in public affairs and service should tend to “represent the culture of the home country” and “expecting cultural interaction in public.” Moreover, while developing activities, we should understand the culture, language background, experiences referring to museum for every immigrate docent and make good use of their expertise to plan relative performances and produce the greatest result in return.

 

Communicate with ONE heart

It’s an essential issue of “cultural equality” to have new immigrants walk into the museum. Usually, the museum tour will end up with shallow understanding for new immigrants since there are no guides speaking their language. Hence, in 2014, National Taiwan Museum have started recruiting those immigrants who are active to participate as tour guides through training and have them use their language and profession to assist new immigrants to acquire the architecture and history of National Taiwan Museum. The Indonesian and Vietnamese ambassadors even speak their mother tongue to invite people to visit and meet freely in museum on Eid al-Fitr in July, 2015.

From 2014 till now, there are total 10 docents with 5 languages including Indonesian, Vietnamese language, Thai, Tagalog and Burmese. I have observed and found out that there are three aspects: 1. “Assisting in Integration”—enhancing the knowledge of Taiwan culture and language themselves and meanwhile help their people to know Taiwan better. 2. “Being a Bridge”— Find out the connection between Taiwan and their home countries and provide help for mutual understanding and communication as a bridge. 3. “Creating Value”— Discovering self-potential by giving and receiving.

These three aspects proceed gradually and perhaps influence reciprocally. In a series of training courses, new immigrants can show their ability and build up their own unique and intercultural tour style through the mutual support between autonomy and emotion, as well as consecutive discussing, studying, observing and practicing.

 

New mission for the museum: crossover and building trust

Crossover cooperation is the key point that the museum can bring multiculturalism into the guidance services. After the recruitment and training are ready, the museum also makes contact with nonprofit organizations (NPO) and student associations, inviting them to work together for experiential activities and a series of “Visiting the Backyard Garden of National Taiwan Museum” events, which are planned to assist with “New Immigrant Ambassadors” along with their own languages. Taiwan participants were concerned of the language barrier in the beginning; however, after being surrounded by cultural literacy activities and South-eastern Asia gourmet, they can easily open their mind to communicate with Mandarin, English and Taiwanese Hokkien (many foreign caregivers can speak standard Hokkien). And for those having relative experiences are even happier to use South-east Asian language to have “language exchanges” with immigrants.

After all the effort National Taiwan Museum have put in for all of these years, the cooperation with universities has been taken over by the research assistant Hui-Shih, Fang from 2017. She recruited foreign students speaking English, Japanese, Korean, Spanish and Cantonese etc. to provide guidance service after well-trained and testing. For now, National Taiwan Museum will be “the place” for intercultural interaction on the weekends.

 

In the past, new immigrants would participate in public service through National immigration Agency, social welfare organizations, and NPO caring new immigrants and migrant workers. Taiwan has always been a multi-cultural society, and having immigrants do the public service in museum is a refreshing start, which a project worthy of sustainable operation. When the museum decided to work on this task, I did my best to reach all personnel, organization and party referring to immigrants and invited all new immigrants including women and kids to join all kinds of courses and activities managed by the promotion-of-education team from museum. In this process, they are in the habit of visiting museum and also built trust on it. At present, new immigrants have been significant capital of the Taiwan society, the service of new immigrants not only can help them discover their own potential, but also become a great reference for immigrants to join public services. Further, it makes Taiwanese to see the real South-east Asian world.

 


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